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조동사(Auxiliary Verb)

1. May, Might의 용법

① 허락.

* May I smoke here?

- Yes, you may.

- No, you may (must) not.

② 추측.

* He may be rich.

= It is possible that he is rich. (현재의 추측, may + 원형)

* He may have been rich.

= It is possible that he was rich. (과거의 추측, may have + p.p)

* 가정법 과거완료 = might have + p.p.

* He may meet her. (= It is possible that he meets her.)

( 그는 그를 만날지도 모른다; 현재의 추측)

He may have meet her. (= It is possible that he met her.)

( 그는 그녀를 과거에 만났을지도 모른다; 과거의 추측)

He might have met her.

= He might have met her, if he had not been busy. (가정법 과거완료)

= He did not meet her, as he was busy. (직설법 과거)

③ 능력.

* Gather roses while you may. (시기를 놓치지 마라)

* A man may be known by his friends.

④ 기타용법.

* Whatever he may do he will not succeed.

No matter what he may do

Do what he will

* He may be called a poet, but he cannot be called a scholar.

* May be rest in peace ! (편히잠드소서!, 기원문)

* Might I ask your mane? (공손)

* He may well say so. (∼하는 것은 당연하다)

= He says so, and well he may.

= He has good reason to say so.

= It is natural that he should say so.

no wonder

a matter of course

not surprising

= I take it for granted that he says so.

◇ may + well + 원형동사: ∼하는 것은 당연하다.

과거: may well have + p.p.

* You may as well --+ begin at once.

might as well

had better --+ → ∼하는게 좋다.

◇ may (might) as well A as B: B하느니 차라리 A하는게 낫다.

실현가능 : may ∼

실현불가능: might ∼

△You may as well not know a thing at all as know it imperfectly.

( 그것을 불완전하게 아느니, 차라리 전혀 모르는 것이 낫다.)

You might as well reason with the wolf as try to persuade him.

( 그를 설득하려고 시도하는 것은 이리를 설득하려는 것과 같다.)

2. Can

① 능력.

* I can speak English. (현재시제 = be able to)

과거 : I was able to speak English.

미래 : I will be able to speak English.

현재완료: I have been able to speak English.

과거완료: I had been able to speak English.

미래완료: I will have been able to speak English.

◇ can의 과거: was able to.

be able to∼의 부정: be unable to∼

② 추측, 강한 의혹.

* Who can he be? (도대체 누구일까?) (강한 부정적 추측)

* Can it be true? (도대체 그게 사실일까?) (강한 부정적 추측)

◇ can, cannot 등의 의문, 부정문에서 '도대체 ∼일까, ∼일리가 없다'의 뜻을 나타내어 강한 의혹이나 부정적인 추측을 표현하는데 쓰임.

* He cannot be honest. (현재의 추측, 그는 정직할리가 없다)

= It is impossible that he is honest.

* He cannot have been honest. (과거의 추측)

= It is impossible that he was honest.

◇ cannot이 추측을 나타낼 땐 과거형에 could not을 사용치 않고,

반드시 cannot + have + p.p. 형태를 사용할 것.

③ 기타.

* You can go home now. (허가)

* Could you show me the way to the station? (공손)

* We cannot be too careful of our health.

* We cannot praise him too much. (아무리 ∼해도 지나치지 않다)

3. Must

①필요, 의무 (must + 의지동사)

* You must go there.

= It is necessary that you should go there.

= It is necessary for you to go there.

◇ must의 부정어는 need not, do not need to, do not have to,

have not to 등이 있음.

* You must go there.

의: Do you have to go there?

과: You had to go there.

미: You will have to go there.

* You have only to do your duty. (∼하기만하면 된다)

② 추측 (must + 무의지동사)

* He must be honest. (현재의 추측)

= I am sure that he is honest.

It is certain

= It is impossible that he is honest.

≠ He cannot be honest.

* He must have been honest. (과거의 추측)

= I am sure that he was honest.

= It is impossible that he was honest.

≠ He cannot have been honest.

③ 기타.

* He must needs come. (꼭 ∼한다고 고집하다)

* Sooner or later, death must come to us all!

( 필연; 반드시 ∼하다. 조만간 죽음은 우리 모두에게 다가온다)

* You must not tell a lie. (금지; ∼해서는 안된다)

≠ You may tell a lie. (허가; ∼해도 좋다)

* I think that I must go.

과거: I thought that I must go.

4. Will, Would

① Will : 현재의 불규칙적 습관. (∼하곤하다)

Would: 과거의 불규칙적 습관. (∼하곤했다)

* He will often sit up reading all night.

* He would often come home drunk, and beat his wife.

② 소망 (wish to, want to)

* He who would search for pearls, must dive deep.

* Would that I were young again!

Would to God

I wish

③ 거절, 고집.

* The door will not open. (현재의 고집)

* He would not help me. (과거의 고집)

④ 습관, 경향 (He'll과 같이 생략형을 쓸 수가 없다)

* Accident will happen.

* Dogs will bark when they see a stranger.

⑤ 기타.

* This vessel will hold 2 gallons of water. (포용력)

* Would you pass me the salt? (공손)

* He would be about twenty, when he met her. (추측)

* He was a strong will. (그는 강한 의지를 갖고 있다)

* He made his will before his death.

◇ will이 명사로 쓰이면 "의지, 뜻, 의사, 유언" 등으로 쓰임.

* I would rather die (than) live in dishonor.

would sooner

had rather

= I would choose death before life in dishonor.

= I prefer dying to living in dishonor. (전치사 + 명사,동명사)

= I prefer to die rather than (to) live in dishonor.

= 불명예스럽게 사느니 죽는 것이 낫다.

5. Should Ⅰ

① 의무 (should + 원형동사: ∼해야한다)

* The young should respect the old.

◇ 'should + 동사원형'은 'ought to + 동사원형'과 마찬가지로 의무

" ∼해야한다"의 뜻.

② 과거의 비난, 유감, 후회 (should + have + p.p.; ∼했어야했는데)

* You should have worked harder.

ought to

= I am sorry (that) you didn't work harder.

= I wish you had worked harder.

Would that

Would to God

If only

= You had to work harder, but you didn't.

③ 강한의문, 놀람, 당연 (의문사 + should)

* Why should you stay in Seoul in this hot weather?

◇ should가 why, how, who 등의 의문문에서 강한 의문, 놀람, 당연 등으로 쓰이면 "도대체 ∼인가?"의 뜻.

* How should I know it? (수사의문문)

= I don't know it at all.

◇ Who should A but b? : 도대체 누가 A하는가 했더니 다름아닌 바로 B이더라.

④ 이성적 판단의 should.

* It is natural that he should get angry.

= It is natural for him to get angry.

= He may well get angry.

◇ It is + 형 + that∼ 구문에서 형용사 necessary, important,

natural, good, well, right, wrong, rational 등이 오면 that절

에 should를 사용한다. (해석할 필요는 없음)

⑤ 감정적 판단의 should.

* It is strange that she should cry all day long.

◇ It is 다음에 a pity, surprising, odd, strange, curious 등이

쓰이면 that∼에 should를 사용하며, "∼하다니"로 해석한다.

should + 동사원형 → 현재의 일.

should + have + p.p. → 과거의 일.

⑥기타.

* He should arrive by the 6:15 train. (추측)

* I should like to go to America once more. (완곡한 표현)

* Write it down in your notebook lest you should forget it.

* He lowered his voice for fear that he should be heard.

→ "∼하지 않도록", 자체 속에 부정의 뜻 포함. should 다음에 not

을 쓰지 않도록 주의할 것.

6. Should Ⅱ

충고: advice, advisable. --+

주장: insist, demand. | + that + 주어 + should + 동사원형

소망: desire, expect. |

요구: require, request. |

제안: propose, move, suggest. |

명령: order. --+

* He insisted that he (should) go to the party.

= He insisted on (또는 upon) going to the party.

* I ordered that he (should) do it himself.

7. Ought to

① 당연, 의무.

* You ought to start at once. (∼해야한다, should와 거의 같은 뜻)

* You ought not to say such things. (부정; ought not to∼)

② 과거의 유감, 후회, 비난.

* You ought to have told me that matter yesterday.

= You should have told me that matter yesterday.

= I am sorry (that) you did not tell me that matter yesterday.

= I wish you had told me that matter yesterday.

( 너는 어제 그일을 나에게 말했어야 했는데...)

◇ ought to + have + p.p는 과거에 실행되지 못한 일에 대해 유감, 비난, 후회를 나타내며 '∼했어야했는데'의 뜻을 갖는다.

* He ought to have arrived at Seoul Station by now.

( 그는 지금쯤 마땅히 서울역에 도착해있을거야; 당연한 추측)

③미래의 추측.

* It ought to be rainy tomorrow. (당연히 ∼일 것이다)

8. Dare

* I dare not to go there.

* How are you say such a thing to my face?

( 내 면전에서 네가 감히 나에게 그런 말을 할 수 있겠는가?)

◇부정문, 의문문에서 조동사로 쓰여 "감히 ∼하다"

* He does not dare to tell us.

◇ dare to do : 본동사로서 "감히 ∼하다"

* I dare say = probably = perhaps = maybe = 아마.

9. Need

* daily needs: 일용품.

* immediate needs: 당장 필요한 것들.

* The house is in need of repair. (명사로 필요, 소용, 결핍의 뜻)

◇ in need of∼: ∼에 필요한. ◇in need: 곤경에 빠져있는.

* He needs your help. (본동사, 그는 너의 도움을 필요로 한다)

* He need not go there. (조동사)

= He does not need to go there. (본동사)

* He need not have written to her again.

( 그는 그녀에게 편지를 다시 쓸 필요가 없었는데...(그런데도 썼다))

He did not need to write to her again.

( 그는 그녀에게 편지를 다시 쓸 필요가 없었다.(썼는지의 여부는 모름)

◇need not have + p.p.: ∼할 필요가 없었는데 ∼를 했다.

did not need to∼ : ∼할 필요가 없었다, 그래서 ∼하지 않았다.

10. Used to

① use가 명사, 동사로 쓰일 때.

* You use your legs when you walk. (동사, [ju:z])

* The telephone is of no use in this town. (명사, [ju:s])

* use up = exhaust: 다 써 버리다.

of no use = useless: 소용이 없는.

② used to + 동사원형.

* I used to get up early. ([ju:st], 과거의 규칙적 습관)

= I was in the habit of getting up early.

= I made it a rule to get up early.

= I made a point of getting up early.

= I made it a point to get up early.

* There used to be a big tree here. (과거의 상태)

③ be used to + 명사, 동명사.

* He is used to driving a car.

= He is accustomed to drive a car.

driving a car.

◇ be used to 다음에 반드시 명사 또는 동명사가 오며 "∼에 익숙하다"의 뜻.

그러나 be accustomed to 다음엔 동사원형 또는 명사나 동명사가 모두 쓰임.



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